DSU™ has been proven on over 20 different feedstocks from Alberta Bitumen, Middle East vacuum residue, and Jordanian oil shale.

  1. Heavy Oil: There is over five trillion barrels of heavy oil in 50 basins around the world; all of them contain heavy metals and sulphur that can be removed by DSU™. Currently, over one million barrels per day of raw Alberta oil sands bitumen is exported to the US for upgrading. At the same time, the trend in oil sands production is away from big mining projects and towards smaller-scale steam injection projects. This favours the modular nature of the MSU process.
  2. Refining: DSU™ can be used for processing intermediate refinery streams such as vacuum residue and asphaltenes which contain sulphur and heavy metals. DSU™ could debottleneck existing sulphur plants or a residue destruction process (e.g., delayed coking unit), resulting in a higher value product.
  3. Oil Shale Producers: Oil Shale (Kerogen) is the one of the most prolific forms of hydrocarbon on earth. A public forecast by PWC estimates global shale oil production to rise to 14 million barrels per day by 2035. The DSU™ process has been tested on shale oils and it works well for removing heavy metals and sulphur.
  4. Low Sulphur Bunker Fuel: Much of the world’s sea-borne shipping is fuelled by heavy fuel oil which is inexpensive but has high sulphur content. The sulphur emission regulations are being tightened worldwide. DSU™ can surgically remove the sulphur along with harmful metals making a low sulphur bunker fuel.